The University of Southern Queensland and Woodside Offshore Petroleum have recently completed a joint project in the design, development and implementation of self paced, multimedia occupational health and safety training courses for all Woodside production division employees. This paper discusses the development of interactive multimedia training materials, the decisions made in connection with the delivery strategies adopted and the multimedia used. A summary of the components of the interactive multimedia training project, identifies the decisions that need to be made when developing an interactive multimedia application, and indicates possible future directions for training programs for industry using interactive multimedia applications.
The term 'self paced' refers to training that is undertaken by trainees at their own pace, largely independent of the guidance of trainers. Multimedia involves computer based technology that uses a combination of elements or media such as text, audio, video and graphics on a desktop personal computer. In the Woodside context, self paced, interactive multimedia training is provided at on site learning centres established specifically for the occupational health and safety training program and using specially prepared materials. This flexible delivery of training was seen by Woodside to be a means of delivering high quality training to all employees at all work sites within the company's operation while still meeting company training objectives. Woodside believed that the introduction of a comprehensive occupational health and safety training program would lead to an improvement in the performance of employees, decrease the risk of injury and accident resulting in lost time, and ultimately improve productivity.
The onshore facilities consist of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) treatment plant, LNG storage tanks, domestic gas production and condensate handling facilities. Various support facilities include the King Bay Supply Base which provides warehousing, workshop and wharf facilities for offshore exploration, operations and constructions, marine services, air operations (heliport), communication systems and underwater operations. The Karratha community has received many direct and indirect contributions from the Project including township contributions, community facilities, development and project infrastructure totalling $322 million.
There are seven purpose built LNG ships involved with the delivery of LNG to Japan. Current LNG deliveries are approaching 6 million tonnes annually, and are projected to reach 7 million tonnes per year by 1995. In such a complex industrial environment, safety is of major importance and is given high priority by Woodside Management. In 1990 Woodside received the Australian Petroleum Exploration Association Safety award in recognition of the company's commitment to ensuring a safe and healthy work environment.
Woodside's continued commitment to occupational health and safety was reflected in the initiation of the Core Safety training program.
Initiating the Core Safety Training Program involved three distinct phases, the first being the hazard and training needs analysis conducted by Woodside. The second phase involved the courseware design and development, undertaken by the design and development team from the USQ DEC in consultation with Woodside training staff and content specialists, and the third phase dealt with the implementation of the training program itself, undertaken by the training coordinator at Woodside.
The use of particular teaching and learning strategies varied from one course to another and with the desired outcome. The strategies adopted for these training materials were designed to cater for Woodside employees who had limited formal education. The cognitive domain strategies required the learners to select information, store it and develop retrieval skills so that they could successfully complete course assessment and call their training into use in the workplace. Some courses required the use of video to show actual work situations and procedures, and others used computer based training packages combined with commercially available interactive video disk material. Woodside specified that each module of work had to have computer based training or assessment material in the form of formative and summative assessment and all courses had to be accompanied by a practical field activity. The development of the course material was focused on the study guide which, as the name implies, was designed to lead each trainee through the various components of the multimedia material.
Once each course matrix had been validated by the Core Review Committee (CRC), a group of Woodside employees, supervisors and managers appointed to monitor all courses, the Woodside project coordinator would then authorise USQ DEC to begin the production of the first draft of the course.
Using the matrix as the course blueprint, the technical writer prepared a first draft of the text, video scripts when required, and computer based training and assessment items. When completed the material was sent to Woodside for the first proof to be carried out. The first draft included all text for study material, full video scripts, and all assessment items which were prepared with feedback for correct and incorrect responses. In the case of assessment items the format of each question was specified (eg. multiple choice, multiple answer, true or false etc.), and the actual computer programming would not take place until approval for all items was received from Woodside. The draft material was passed to all members of the course consultancy team to be checked for accuracy and amendment where necessary. The changes were, in most cases, minor. Once validation of all items was received the Woodside project coordinator issued the authorisation for the design and development of the courses to proceed to the next stage and for the computer based assessment and instruction to be programmed. The design and development process (Figure 1) provided a systematic and efficient mechanism for the production of training material. Much of the preparatory work for each course was undertaken in Karratha during the design team's visit. All work sent to Woodside for proofing was transmitted via modem enabling even the most complex of computer based material to be transferred quickly between the two work locations.
Figure 1: Core Safety training program courseware development model
Accepting that adults learn in different ways and that many Woodside employee have received only the minimum requirement of formal education, care had to be taken to present the courses in a clear, flexible and effective way. The ideas and principles behind the design of the courses are derived from the works of Horn, 1973; Gagne and Briggs; 1974; Reigeluth, 1983 and Romiszowski, 1986. The course objectives are stated clearly in advance, and trainees are provided with regular opportunities to demonstrate the desired behaviour.
Using regular and positive feedback in the computer based formative assessment, learners are kept active by means of a balanced use of different media. A combination of learning theories and the use of adult learning concepts helps to provide training programs that cater for the needs of both employee and employer. The development of a study profile allows employees to select courses, beyond the obligatory Core courses, that are relevant to their work situation, in consultation with their supervisor who represents the company input, reflecting the company's need as well.
The computer based assessment was incorporated into the training programs to provide an immediate indication of trainee performance throughout each training module. The use of computerised assessment also removed the need for test marking and subsequent manual record keeping and administration. Each interaction undertaken by the trainee is recorded and monitored in the Student Management System (SMS).
Computer based training material provides the trainee with a variety of experiences. Simulations show how to moor an LNG tanker, make and unmake flanges and gaskets or operate specialist equipment. The computer based training provides the trainee with realistic training without the risks associated with doing the real thing. In procedural training the learner, through interactions with the computer based material, can gain experience that would not otherwise be possible. Each CBT course starts with a course map an example of which is shown in Figure 2 below [Editorial note: Figure 2 was missing from the original]. The course map contains details of each module within the course and the Challenge Test. Except in courses where sequence of training is essential, trainees may study the modules in any order they wish. Where sequence is important trainees are locked out of later modules until preceding ones have been completed. Trainees can exit the programs at any time. The CBT makes use of graphics and real photographs of plant and equipment throughout the production facility, and incorporates a formative assessment component.
Of the fifty courses (Appendix A) targeted for development, 44 have been completed at the time of writing and the implementation of the Core Safety Training Program has commenced. Six courses were combined with other courses for development.
Some of the basic principles used to develop the Core Safety Training Program material included the need for the materials to be comprehensive, relevant, reliable, and internally consistent. Each course was designed to cover all aspects of the topic and it had to be relevant to the Woodside operation in general and to specific work sites within the Production Division. The course content had to be valid and accurate and delivered consistently to all trainees at all work sites. The training material developed had to cater for all personnel with different educational and academic backgrounds, enabling them to access the different course components easily and to use them effectively.
The use of particular teaching and learning strategies varied from one course to another and with the desired outcome. Some courses required the use of video to show actual work situations and procedures, and others used computer based training packages combined with commercially available interactive video disk material. Woodside specified that each module of work had to have computer based training or assessment material in the form of formative and summative assessment and all courses had to be accompanied by a field activity. The development of the course material was focused on the study guide which, as the name implies, was designed to lead each trainee through the various components of the multimedia material.
Some of the results of the evaluation study recently undertaken by the author have indicated that the training programs have been well received by all Woodside employees and the initial test results demonstrate a high level of achievement by trainees. The cost of the self paced multimedia delivery is 17% less than that of face to face delivery over a two year period and 67% less over a four year period, the anticipated shelf life of the training material.
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Horn, R. E. (1973). Introduction to Information Mapping. Lexington, Massachussetts: Information Resources Inc.
Oldfield, D. (1989). Independent learning in the private sector. ASPESA 9th Biennial Forum, Distance education for training in business and industry, (pp.315-323). Gippsland Institute of Advanced Education.
Reigeluth, C. M. (Ed). (1983). Instructional Design Theories and Models: An Overview of their Current Status. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Romiszowski, A. J. (1992). Developing interactive multimedia courseware and networks. In Promaco Conventions (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Interactive Multimedia Symposium, 17-46. Perth, Western Australia, 27-31 January. Promaco Conventions. http://www.aset.org.au/confs/iims/1992/romiszowski1.html
Timmins, K. & Cook, H. (1989). Designing self instructional material for the electricity industry: A Case Study. ASPESA 9th Biennial Forum, Distance education for training in business and industry, Gippsland Institute of Advanced Education.
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|CORE SPECIFIC||SAFE000288||Flanges Gaskets and Bolting Techniques (NRA)|
|SAFE000000||First Course||SAFE000289||Portable Gas Monitors (NRA)|
|SAFE000250||Working in the Pilbara with Woodside||SAFE000302||Portable Gas Analysers|
|SAFE000251||Working in the North West with Woodside (NRA)||SAFE000291||Spring Operated and Rotating Equipment|
|SAFE000252||Personal Health in the Pilbara||SAFE000292||Materials Handling|
|SAFE000253||Safety Everybody's Business||SAFE000293||Personal Gas Monitors|
|SAFE000262||Unsafe Act Auditing|
|SAFE000264||Accident Reporting Techniques||SAFE000254||Permit to Work System (Plant)|
|SAFE000265||Accident Reporting Techniques (NRA)||SAFE000255||Permit to Work System (Supply Base)|
|SAFE000266||Basic Life Support||SAFE000273||Permit to Work System (NRA)|
|SAFE000267||Protect Your Body||SAFE000257||Site and Emergency Overview (Town Office)|
|SAFE000282||Continuity of Supply and Safety Agreement||SAFE000258||Site and Emergency Overview (Heliport)|
|SAFE000272||Vehicles||SAFE000259||Site and Emergency Overview (Plant)|
|SAFE000283||Hearing Conservation||SAFE000260||Site and Emergency Overview (Supply Base)|
|SAFE000284||Eye Protection||SAFE000261||Site and Emergency Overview (NRA)|
|SAFE000285||Personal Protective Equipment||SAFE000268||Radio Communication Procedures|
|SAFE000269||Radio Communication Procedures|
|SAFE000270||Hazardous Area Classification||SAFE000300||Working on the Jetty (Ops\Maint)|
|SAFE000271||Working at Heights||SAFE000301||Working on the Jetty (GSO)|
|SAFE000274||Electrical Isolations (IO)||SAFE000304||Casing Handling Techniques|
|SAFE000275||Electrical Isolations (SIO)||SAFE000305||Cargo Handling Procedures|
|SAFE000276||Electrical Isolations (ESO)||SAFE000306||Use of Steam Cleaners|
|SAFE000277||Electrical Isolations (SESO)||SAFE000308||Hydrotesting Facility|
|SAFE000278||Explosion Proof Techniques||SAFE000309||Subsurface Safety Valve - N2 Test Facility|
|SAFE000280||Process Sampling||SAFE000311||Introduction to Offshore Wireline Operation|
|SAFE000281||Asbestos and MMF Handling|
|SAFE000286||Portable Gas Analysers (NRA)|
|SAFE000287||Flanges Gaskets and Bolting Techniques|
|Author: James Burgess is currently a lecturer in Further Education and Training in the Faculty of Education, The University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba Queensland 4350. Tel: (076) 312371 Fax: (076) 31 2828, and Managing Director of Flexible Training Systems, 98 Hume Street, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350. Tel: (076) 32 2216.
Please cite as: Burgess, J. (1994). Developing an interactive multimedia training application for industry. In C. McBeath and R. Atkinson (Eds), Proceedings of the Second International Interactive Multimedia Symposium, 49-55. Perth, Western Australia, 23-28 January. Promaco Conventions. http://www.aset.org.au/confs/iims/1994/bc/burgess.html