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Customising Sesame Street for Canadian children

Richard F. Lewis
Associate Professor Communication Studies
University of Windsor, Canada

Since 1972, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has aired a Canadian version of Sesame Street, the popular children's series produced by the Children's Television Workshop in the US. The CBC buys the previous year's production from CTW, deletes content applicable only to the United States, eg., Spanish, US holidays, money and the letter Z, and then adds Canadian produced segments. The resulting programs are aired daily on the CBC each morning. Since 1972, more than 2000 segments of 30 second to four minutes have been produced.

This paper contains information on the process of producing the Canadian content: the goals of the Canadian segments, the types of production styles, the localities where production takes place and the segment evaluation process. The paper also contains a discussion of issues involved in the production and research process, further attempts at Canadianisation and difficulties encountered in the project. Other topics which will be discussed are plans to allow schools to use segments for teaching French and other subjects and the introduction of three Canadian muppets.

The Children's Television Workshop (CTW) used powerful formal features and solid research to create Sesame Street, a magazine format television program for preschoolers in 1969. In 1972, a modified version of the program was aired in Canada (Lavoie, 1986). This paper describes the process of producing the Canadian version, describes major Canadian goals and discusses issues related to the production of the program.

The Canadian media reality

Canada's 26 million people are spread over 5.6 million square kilometres spanning six time zones. However, most of the population can be found in a narrow band in close proximity to the United States border. As one of the most heavily cabled nations in the world, most Canadians have immediate access to US television programs. As a result, Canadians can watch all three US networks and the American Public Broadcasting System, in addition to the two domestic networks. In addition there are US stations close to the border (in Buffalo and Plattsburg, New York; Detroit, Michigan; and Seattle, Washington) whose signals reach Canada. In all cases, however, the networks regardless of origin broadcast a variety of programs originating from Canada, the United States and other nations. As a result, Sesame Street had been viewed by numerous Canadian children, parents and producers before it was aired by the CBC.

The reasons for modifying Sesame Street

Sesame Street's success in not only achieving its objectives for the disadvantaged but also reaching the middle and upper class child might make a strong case for simply airing the program in Canada without modification. The segments produced by CTW were systematically planned, meticulously produced, thoroughly evaluated and then modified so that they were almost guaranteed to appeal to the intended audience. Sesame Street, however, uses a medium which assails more of our senses than any other. In addition to teaching children how to count, recognise letters and other useful skills, Sesame Street achieves its objectives against a social, cultural and geographic background. Few Sesame Street segments are shot against a neutral background in a studio. Many live segments are shot in inner city neighbourhoods in the United States reflecting accents, houses, and the shooting locales of lifestyles in the US.

Comstock (1975) and Hawkins and Pingree (1981) suggested that where the environment does not contain information about a topic, television provides such a picture. Sesame Street, as a show designated for Canadian preschoolers who in all probability have seldom been outside their neighbourhoods, needed to reflect the Canadian cultural reality. As a result the CBC decided not to air the US program in its entirety. Instead, the decision was made to edit the US version and add Canadian material. The decision was based on Canada's priority for French rather than Spanish and on the necessity to reflect a different society. While the US has large Black and a large Hispanic minorities, these two groups while present in Canada do not form large minorities. The principle of adding Canadian content also allowed writers, music composers, performers, animators, directors and producers to practise their crafts on a show which reaches 90% of its potential audience daily. This decision to adapt Sesame Street to the Canadian culture was reached in 1970; later it would be reinforced by MacBride et. al. (1980) who indicated that the cultural identity of every country had to be preserved while promoting knowledge of other cultures.

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation is a crown corporation reporting to the Parliament of Canada. The CBC owns and operates 18 English originating television stations and 426 rebroadcasters across the country (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1987). With affiliates and other rebroadcasters, the CBC broadcasts in English using 674 stations in Canada. In French, the CBC uses 222 stations and rebroadcasters. Ninety-nine percent of Canadians can receive English or French television signals. The CBC English network, based in Toronto feeds programs to the regions. However, major centres in each region also have production facilities to allow them to produce programs of local interest.

An important department in CBC has been the Children's Department which actively supports and produces excellent programs for children including Sesame Street and programs for adolescents like Kids of Degrassi Street and Degrassi Junior High. CBC's audience share is approximately 20%, compared to 31.6% for the US networks (CBC, 1987). Seventy-six percent of CBC's English television content is Canadian; 20% is American and four percent comes from elsewhere (CBC, 1987).

Sesame Street

The CBC has aired Sesame Street daily in the 11 am to noon time slot for 16 years. Each year, the previous year's production is purchased from the Children's Television Workshop in New York. In Winnipeg, an editor removes content which is unnecessary in Canada, such as references to American coins, the US flag, US national holidays, etc. All segments containing Spanish are deleted along with alphabet segments because they use the American pronunciation (zee) of the letter Z (pronounced 'zed' in Canada). Sixty minute programs are then assembled using the original US material and Canadian content. The Canadian content forms between 12 and 20 minutes of each program.

The production process in Canada

CBC Sesame Street has retained the model of CTW when producing segments, ie., clear goals, meticulous production, research and evaluation. The CBC has an Advisory Committee of Canadian experts who assist in the setting and selection of goals and assist in the evaluation process at various stages of production. Every Sesame Street segment must be based on a behaviourally stated goal (CBC Sesame Street, 1988). In Canada, the goals deal with the following areas:
  1. The Child and His/Her World.
  2. Symbolic Representation.
  3. Cognitive Organisation.
  4. Bilingual Goals.
  5. Canadian Children.
  6. Native Culture and Heritage.
Each of these large goal areas is subdivided into precise goals on which each segment is based. The first three goals areas were adapted from the Children's Television Workshop Goals (Sesame Street Research, 1988). The three last goals are Canadian goals. Producers are encouraged to produce segments which meet several goals. The first goal deals with self, the child and his/her powers, pre-science goals, emotions, social units, social groups and institutions, social interactions, conflict resolution, entering social groups, the man made environment, the natural environment and quality of the environment. The symbolic representation goals deal with pre-reading, writing, vocabulary, numbers and geometric forms. The cognitive organisation goals deal with perceptual discrimination, relational concepts and classifying. The purely Canadian goals will be described in more detail below.

With input from the Advisory Committee, the program's executive producer decides the season's priorities. Writers are then commissioned to prepare scripts for proposed segments. After scripts are scrutinised by production staff and selected experts, production teams in seven cities produce 100-150 segments each year. Each segment lasts between six seconds and three minutes (Caron-Bouchard and Bouchard, 1982). Some segments are animated, some are live. Most segments are filmed although a small number are videotaped. Segments include location shooting and studio shooting. The program uses all types of animation (cell, clay, beads, sand, cutouts, puppets) and combination segments incorporating both live and animated footage. Almost all segments feature children. All segments are set to original music, composed and performed in Canada.

The Canadian goals of CBC Sesame Street

The teaching of French language and culture to English Canadians

Sesame Street is aimed at English Canadians although many francophones can receive the program on air or on cable. Bilingualism and bilculturalism are Canadian national priorities and consequently have been important goals of CBC Sesame Street. Beginning in the first production year, segments containing Spanish were deleted from the US version and replaced by segments containing French. The bilingual goals include the familiarisation of the English speaking child with words, phrases and French conversations. The bicultural goal is to familiarise the non French speaking child with French Canadian culture especially its customs, geography, art forms, songs, theatre, dance and crafts. Introducing French Canadian performers is a part of that goal.

The goal of introducing French words, phrases and French conversations to children has been accomplished using a range of formats. Some segments present a French word or phrase which is linked to appropriate visuals. In some cases, the word is presented once; in others, several presentations occur. In some segments, several examples of the word being communicated are given. For instance, a presentation of the French word for glass might be linked to several types of glasses. Segments dealing with concrete objects are easy to produce. However, segments which deal with action verbs have been more problematic. Often the action verb can be confused with the objects presented.

Bilingual segments present English and French words or phrases either as direct translations of each other or as complementary phrases. The type of segment seems to dictate the format. In another format, one language is used as a question and the other is used as the answer. A recent segment introducing 'Dans ma poche' (In my pocket) asked "Where 'ya going to put it?" The French answer was "Dans ma poche". Strong visuals illustrate the questions and the answer so that the child will make the link between the words and the visuals.

In a relatively new format, the child is told that a word is 'French' for a certain English word. In previous formats, the child may have been unaware that a particular word is a French word and may assume that an object merely has two names. In the cueing format, the producer has one of the characters say overtly that the word is French. Conversational French items usually depict an interaction between people speaking French at normal conversational speed with all local accents and wording (and sometimes errors) left intact. Part of the objective here is to point out to Canadian children who have no exposure to a totally francophone environment that life takes place in French. Some recent segments have added some English narration which breaks in to explain the sequence of events.

There has been little research on the efficiency of the various models of presenting French using television. Research must focus on the best formats for achieving particular goals such as vocabulary or phrase acquisition and exposure to spoken French. Issues involve whether content can be presented as spoken words or a song, the number of times a word is introduced, whether conversation French segments achieve their objectives, the necessity for exact audiovisual correspondence and the necessity for live speakers mouthing the words.

There are difficulties associated with the production of French segments. Many segments are produced by anglophone producers who have learned French as a second language. D'Anglejan (1986) has suggested that translation does not always work. For instance, the word 'up' has many different meanings in English. They cannot always be translated as 'en haut'. Relational concepts like big, bigger, biggest, which work well in English are awkward in French. It has been suggested that people in segments be seen communicating in both languages to model a desirable situation in Canada. D'Anglejan suggests that producers start with the French content to be taught and then design the segment around it.

Producers have been faced with another difficult issue when it comes to producing French segments. In Montreal, native French speakers abound. However in other parts of Canada, it is more difficult to locate adult and child actors who can speak French fluently. Regional wording which sometimes includes errors does not help. The Quebec language authority which is trying to purify the French language in Quebec has also created a new awareness of the quality of French used. During the most recent screenings, a segment originally produced in 1976 had a new soundtrack added. The original contained the French phrase 'C'est le fun'. Although this construction might have been acceptable then, current thinking made it less desirable.

Native culture and heritage

Goals in this area include the presentation of culture, costumes, language, songs, arts and crafts and legends of Canada's Native People. The challenge when producing segments in this goal area has been to present the content without stereotyping the people featured, eg., native men with a feather headdress. Animation has been used to present some of the legends. Games, such as a game with small stones have been presented by a young Native actor playing the game with children. Arts and crafts have been presented by showing the children interacting with an adult dealing with crafts. Another series of segments on a painter shows him at work while he explains his art. A series of segments on life in the Arctic regions shows Native and Innuit people using snowmobiles and living like many other Canadians.

Cultural, ethnic and racial diversity

Canada is a rich cultural mosaic made up of people from almost every nation on earth (Canadian Consultative Council on Multiculturalism, 1980). Unlike the United States with its policy of cultural melting pot, in Canada there is a conscious and well publicised government policy to encourage Canadians to celebrate their original cultural heritage. Fleming (1981) pointed out the benefits of multiculturalism for Canadians but noted that cultures other than Anglo-Saxon were often invisible in the Canadian media (See also PEAC Developments, 1980). Sesame Street Canada has attempted to portray the Canadian cultural mosaic by presenting visible minorities in segments and presenting cultural characteristics of different groups to other Canadians (Lewis, 1981).

Program segments often include visible minorities: Orientals, East Indians, Blacks and Native People. There is no special attention drawn to the minority person; he or she is integrated into the segment. Before 1985, few minority adults were shown but since 1985, Oriental, Black and East Indian adults have appeared in segments. Since 1986, animators working on segments began to include visible minorities as animated characters in the segments. The rationale behind including visible minorities in segments is that children who are members of these groups will see themselves reflected on television and as a result may feel legitimised by it (Berry and Mitchell-Kernan, 1982).

In another effort to introduce various cultures to Canadians, producers are experimenting with ways of including musical backgrounds reflective of Canada's cultures. The rich heritage of Anglo-Celtic music and the skirl of the pipes have not yet been heard as background in segments, but recent segments have witnessed an increase in the use of instruments like the accordion instead of guitars, keyboards and percussion. The rich lyrical styles of southern Europe, the haunting sitar, ragas, Eastern melodies in minor keys and the percussive rhythms of the Caribbean are being considered for future productions.

Another form of introducing multicultural content is to present the customs of a specific cultural group. Segments have focused on dance, food, entertainment, families, dress and folklore. This area has been one of the most difficult to negotiate for the producers. While it is theoretically desirable to present high profile culture in a segment, there are inherent dangers. The characteristic being presented may be viewed as a stereotype of the culture. For instance, Ukrainian dancing is very popular in western Canada. A segment on Sesame Street showed young people dancing in red boots and labelled the dance as Ukrainian. To some, the segment was seen as stereotyping the Ukrainians as people who wear red boots.

As the program explores cultural customs, more difficulties may arise. Many Moslem cultures segregate boys and girls, especially in play. It was recently suggested to the Advisory Committee that segments which showed boys and girls playing together might be offensive to some people. The position taken by the Committee was that boys and girls play together in Canada and that the program would continue to reflect this practice. Similarly, segments have been deliberately designed to show girls and women performing non traditional tasks. Opposition from cultures which do not believe in equality is not likely to be considered seriously because they do not reflect the Canadian norm.

Canadian culture and heritage

Sesame Street goals include presenting information about sports, games, crafts, heritage and history and Canadian performers. These goals present special challenges because they are often narrative and hard to handle in short segments. One segment on Canadian pottery has been split into two shorter segments so that the content could be covered. History has been particularly difficult to present. Most segments have used animation because of the difficulty of re-enacting scenes. Research from the CTW has shown that performers singing to the camera have trouble maintaining attention. Canadian segments presenting performers have attempted to use action and other visuals to augment the singer. In a segment presenting a song about the sky, shots of the performer singing to children on a prairie were interspersed with shots including cell animation over the cloud forms.

Regional diversity

Goals in this area include flora, fauna, geography, people, ways of life and regions. Part of the achievement of this goal involves increasing the number of production sites across Canada. Originally, Winnipeg was the only production site for CBC Sesame Street. A few years later, Montreal was added, then Toronto. Segments are now produced in Halifax on the Atlantic Coast and Vancouver on the Pacific coast. In the middle of the country, Regina and Edmonton have joined Winnipeg as production centres. Ottawa, the nation's capital will join the team in 1989.

Producers from the region may naturally reflect their region. Segments shot in Vancouver or Halifax often use ocean scenes as a backdrop. Prairie segments reflect the broad flat land in the middle of Canada. The program has resisted producing segments which present a city in a travel ad format preferring instead to show the region as a background. The problem of stereotyping can also occur here. When most Canadians from central Canada think of the Maritimes, visions of beaches, sailboats, fish and lighthouses come to mind. Segments from the maritime regions must reflect more than these stereotypes if they are to contribute to regional understanding. The other difficulty is that except for Halifax, St. John's and Vancouver which because of their location are very distinctive, sections of other Canadian cities look very much alike. Fredericton, New Brunswick looks much like Windsor, Ontario or Regina, Saskatchewan. Urban segments from the regions may be difficult to identify as regional segments unless they present some features of the city recognisable to local residents and perhaps to others. For instance, any Ottawa segment which had a glimpse of Parliament Hill would tell all Canadians that the segment was shot in Ottawa. Obviously, it is CBC's hope that to resolve the problem of urban similarity producers will look beyond the city boundaries for locations and sites which represent regional distinctiveness.

Making Sesame Street more Canadian

Within and outside CBC, there are often questions about why CBC Sesame Street is not entirely produced in Canada. The chief reason is the cost of producing a complete hour of television for children. Another valid reason is that many of the US segments are excellent, present information of universal value and could work in any program. As a result, they are included in the Canadian program. Despite these points, producers and planners have continued to consistently review segments and policy to make the program more Canadian. Viewers have sometimes indicated that they have trouble distinguishing the Canadian program from the US version (which airs on cable stations which carry the Public Broadcasting System feed). Part of this problem will be corrected by a new opening for the program airing in during the 1988-89 season. This opening will be distinctively Canadian, highlighting the CBC Sesame Street. Three new Canadian muppets will be included in the opening as well as other Canadian material. Enough shots from the original Sesame Street will be retained to link the opening to the US program.

The most significant change has been the introduction of three Canadian muppets. Dodi is a bush pilot, an legendary career familiar to both Australia and Canada. She flies around the country in a small plane and provides the opportunity to visit cities around the nation. The introduction of the Dodi segments has allowed producers to use footage of Canadian landmarks like Niagara Falls and the Calgary Stampede with the studio segments hosted by Dodi in her plane. The other two muppets include Basil, who looks like a bear, and Louie, who looks like an otter. Louie is bilingual and helps Basil to learn French. The three muppets have been placed in segments together and have also been linked with children, animated sections and stock footage. The muppets have allowed producers to deal with content similar to New York segments from a Canadian perspective.

What makes a segment Canadian?

Television can be viewed as using two levels of communication: content and form (McLuhan, 1964). A nation's culture then could presumably be communicated through formal features, the production techniques such as pans, zooms, music and through what is shown or said. Huston et. al. (1981) emphasised the importance of studying the formal features. Anderson and Levin (1976) suggested a number of formal features which cause children to pay attention to television: comprehensible segments, clear plots, moderately paced editing, auditory changes especially sound effects, children's voices and other techniques. Bouchard (1979) did a similar study in Canada and found that many of the same techniques increased attention.

In an interview (Whittington, 1979), the executive producer of Sesame Street suggested that a segment would have a Canadian flavor because Canadian ideas and Canadian talent automatically provide a Canadian perspective. Canadian values, he suggested would inevitably come through in the style of the production. If this hypothesis is correct, Canadians should be able to differentiate Canadian segments from their US counterparts regardless of content. This whole area, however, is one which requires intensive further study including a content analysis to discover if there are any differences in formal features between different national productions of this show.

At the content level, it is possible to identify cultural heritage based on overt cues as to location. For example in some cities major landmarks such as Parliament Hill in Ottawa or Citadel Hill in Halifax immediately identify the location to many people. Audio cues could also give more generalised locations such as region of the country. In the muppet segments, Dodi's plane and her flying jacket both display the flag, clearly labelling them as Canadian.

Other issues facing the program

Because the CBC buys the previous year's version of Sesame Street, certain content will surely be repeated. With most segments, there is little concern. However with certain content, problems arise. Several year's ago, CTW decided to deal with Mr. Hooper's death on the air. As a result, Mr. Hooper died one year on the US version and then a year later in the Canadian version. Similarly, Maria and Luis's wedding, seen in 1988 by children watching the US version will be seen in 1989 on the CBC version. Since many Canadian children watch both versions, parents may have to deal with some confused children.

There has been an interest in further use of Sesame Street segments in schools and other formal learning environments. The French segments were of particular interest. CBC Enterprises, the marketing arm of the CBC, has begun to make segments available for purchase. However, the mentality of selling a half hour program has been hard to break. Lewis (1983) found that teachers liked the flexibility of using segments as units and not as part of a long program. The marketing strategy for CBC Enterprises with its emphasis on producing 30 minute programs may make segment television difficult to obtain.

Research on Sesame Street

One of the fundamental changes which CTW introduced with Sesame Street was the principle that research should guide production. CTW uses formative evaluation techniques to modify segments while they are in production. In Canada, the research team conducts post production evaluations of segments (Caron-Bouchard, 1984). Funding is not available to analyse all segments, so 20-25 segments are selected for evaluation by the Advisory Board and the producers each year. Variations of the distractor analysis technique (Palmer, 1973) are used to determine children's attention to the segments. Comprehension is determined though in depth interviews with 20-30 children. Reports from the research team are fed back to producers who then incorporate the findings into the following year's segments.

In addition to regular program evaluation, Sesame Street poses many questions for future research. One involves the teaching of French by television in the Sesame Street formats. Lewis (1983) found that segments could be effective in teaching vocabulary to elementary school students. A later study investigated the effect of formal features such as music and multiple presentations of vocabulary on comprehension (Lewis, 1984). There have been no studies with kindergarten students dealing with the question of the effectiveness of the language teaching formats.

Future directions

As Canadian society continues to change, new goal areas will have to be added. During the 1988 annual seminar, the Advisory Committee and Producers heard presentations by experts dealing with the environment, the family and multiculturalism. As a result of the presentation on the environment, every effort will be made to reduce presentations of non biodegradable materials, like styrofoam cups in segments.

Segments as vehicles for increasing international understanding

Although large scale one sided flow of programs can be negative; two way flow can be most beneficial to all parties (Varis, 1985; MacBride et. al., 1980). The benefits of two way exchanges of Sesame Street programs should be examined. At the current time, Sesame Street is produced in many countries including Germany, Latin America, Israel, the Middle East and New Zealand. The segments produced in these countries could be exchanged so that children get glimpses of other nations in a format they understand. It would also be interesting to analyse different versions of Sesame Street to determine if formal features vary across cultures. This research could present some excellent material for future work in the area of culture and the media.


Anderson, D. R. and Levin, S. R. (1976). Young children's attention to Sesame Street. Child Development, 47, 806-811.

Berry, G. L. (1980). Children, television and social class roles: The medium as an unplanned educational curriculum. In E. Palmer and A. Dorr (Eds), Children and the faces of television. New York: Academic Press.

Berry, G. and Mitchell-Kernan, C. (1982). Television and the socialization of the minority child. New York: Academic Press.

Bouchard, A. (1979). Paying Attention to Sesame Street. Outremont, Quebec: Les Communications ABC Inc., Photocopied report.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (1987). Annual Report: 1986-1987. Ottawa, Ontario, The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

CBC Sesame Street (1988). Statement of Instructional Goals. Montreal: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, photocopied document.

Canadian Consultative Council on Multiculturalism (1980). Submission to the Canadian Radio- Television and Telecommunications Commission on the Review of Canadian Content Regulations. Photocopied report.

Caron-Bouchard, M. (1984). Comprehension and visual interest for nine segments of the 198081-82 production. Outremont, Quebec: Les Communications ABC, Inc. Immediate Feedback No. 14. Photocopied report.

Caron-Bouchard M. and Bouchard, A. (1982). Sesame Street/CBC Ten years of production (1972- 1982). Outremont, Quebec: Les Communications ABC, Inc. Photocopied Report.

Comstock, G. (1975). Effects of television on children: What is the evidence? The Rand Corporation.

D'Anglejan, A. (1986). New perspectives on French segments. Part of the Statement of Instructional Goals, CBC Sesame Street.

Fleming, J. (1981). Multiculturalism: who's it for? A speech delivered to the Fourth Canadian Conference on Multiculturalism, Ottawa.

Hawkins, R. end Pingree, S. (1981). Using television to construct social reality. Journalism Quarterly, 25(4), 345-364.

Huston, A. C. et. al. (1981). Communicating more than content: Formal features of children's television programs. Journal of Communication, 31 (3), 32-48.

Lavoie, M. (1986). CBC Sesame Street at 15. CBC Sesame Street Newsletter, 5 (1), 2-3.

Lewis, R. F. (1981). Multiculturalism and CBC SesameStreet. Paper presented to the Advisory Committee of CBC Sesame Street. Montreal.

Lewis, R. F. (1983). Using Canadian Sesame Street segments in elementary classrooms to teach French. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 20(3), 190-196.

Lewis, R. F. (1984). The relationship of cognitive style to learning French via French television segments. University of Windsor, Unpublished report.

MacBride, S. et. al. (1980). Many voices, one world. London: Kogan Page.

McLuhan, H. M. (1964). Understanding media, the extensions of man. New York: McGraw Hill.

Palmer, E. (1973). Formative research in the production of television for children. In D. R. Olson (Ed), Media and the symbols: The forms of expression, communication and education. 73rd Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

PEAC Developments (1980). The portrayal of Canadian cultural diversity on English language Canadian network television. Report prepared for the Department of the Secretary of State, Multiculturalism Directorate.

Sesame Street Research (1988). Statement of instructional goals for the twentieth experimental season of Sesame Street (1988-1989). Photocopied report.

Varis, Tapio (1985). International flow of television programmes. Paris: UNESCO Press.

Whittington, K. (1979). Big Bird, your maple leaf is showing. Concordia University Magazine, pp. 15-17.

Author: Richard F. Lewis is Associate Professor of Communication Studies and Director of Educational Resources at the University of Windsor. He holds the PhD degree in Instructional Technology from Syracuse University. Dr. Lewis is Chairman of the Advisory Committee of CBC Sesame Street. His research interests include children and television, instructional design and computer user interaction.

Please cite as: Lewis, R. F. (1988). Customising Sesame Street for Canadian children. In J. Steele and J. G. Hedberg (Eds), Designing for Learning in Industry and Education, 58-67. Proceedings of EdTech'88. Canberra: AJET Publications.

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