Interactive videodisc represents the fusion of video and microcomputer technology in an effort to exploit the strengths of each whilst minimising the weaknesses. New courseware designs, which do not rigidly structure learner responses, need to be explored to complement this medium of instruction. Successful adoption of IV depends on developing quality courseware which takes into account the unique attributes of the technology. Experience to date indicates that IV designs are only just beginning to exploit the capacity of the technology.
After making a cursory examination of the literature about IV it is tempting to conclude that a revolution in education and training has taken place. As Bosco (1984, p.13) observed six years ago, "Many of the articles and reports on IV which have been produced in the last few years are written from a stance of advocacy"; and many still are. A great number of claims made about IV use in training are speculative. A good example of such exuberance is this comment by Jonassen (1984, p.2), "There is little doubt that microcomputer-controlled videodisc systems represent the most potentially powerful communication device in the history of instructional communication"; or Young and Schieve (1984, p.4), "Videodisc technology may well revolutionise training in both public and private institutions by the end of the decade". Such rhetoric is similar to that which accompanied the introduction of microcomputers into training. Interactive videodisc technology has great potential for training but there are some important issues still to be addressed; progress is not imminent.
With the advent of rerecordable videodiscs, IV designers and trainers will probably perceive the technology as more accessible but this will not necessarily result in radical cost reductions. Reductions in the cost of hardware and to a lesser extent mastering, will not alter instructional design, coding and television production costs, which will remain by far the most expensive component of any training initiatives (excluding off the shelf courseware) involving IV. The importance of these factors will be considered later in this paper. Like other optical disc formats, such as CD-I and DVI, the likelihood of rerecordable interactive videodisc players developing into a robust market is at least 5-10 years away, if ever (Gery, 1989).
Laservision is the preferred format for training at present because it provides fast access times and very high quality pictures with stereo sound that can be controlled by an external computer to provide interactivity, and to generate text and graphics. If the 54 000 frames were given over to text then there would be room to store 160 million words, or 655 000 A4 pages, or 1300 books. The whole of Encyclopaedia Britannica could be stored on two thirds of one side of a full motion videodisc (Gienke, 1984). While the one gigabyte data storage capabilities of 12 inch (30 centimetre) optical videodiscs is enormous in data storage terms it still only represents 36 minutes of video. An important feature of a videodisc is its ability to store a variety of multimedia materials (slides, film sequences, audio, etc.) on one format.
Videodisc players with reasonably powerful on board microcomputers are already available but, despite claims to the contrary, their use is still restricted to dedicated tasks because programme information is often stored on the videodisc and therefore cannot be altered. Future units will no doubt incorporate a fully integrated microcomputer into the design. This should do away with costly and cumbersome interface devices and allow for a system that is simpler to operate. Features such as dual audio channel, stop motion, frame by frame review, either slow forward or reverse, auto stop, and rapid scan are also useful control devices.
Problems of hardware incompatibility may seriously hinder training uses of IV equipment. Recent releases of multiformat players by all major manufacturers have gone some way towards a solution to this impasse. These players can automatically play eight or twelve inch NTSC or PAL videodiscs, video compact discs or audio compact discs. Multiformat optical disc players are half as expensive as previous laserdisc players and cost no more than an expensive CD player. Sales increases for multiformat optical disc players are expected to increase 40%, quadrupling to $4m by 1995 (The Australian, 17/10/89). Thus, economies of scale will begin to operate, further reducing the unit price of players. Overall familiarity with optical technology, especially to reproduce video, should significantly increase. The speed of innovation in videodisc hardware design makes compatibility an important issue. If wide usage of IV is to become a reality in training, a universal standard will be essential. Standardisation of format, when combined with the ability to rerecord, will lead to wide consumer acceptability. So rather than settling on one disc size and format, it seems that an interim solution for trainers wanting to avoid investing in equipment that may be rendered obsolete, will be to purchase competitively priced multiformat videodisc players. In the long term it is worth noting that all major manufacturers of optical discs have agreed to collaborate to develop common standards for interactive use of video and audio compact disc systems. Such cooperation is crucial to ensure information is standardised for translation to discs and the production of players (Screen Digest, March, 1986, p.57). In the interim IBM's InfoWindows has emerged as the de facto industry standard and looks like remaining so until a universal standard is developed.
As Geber (1989) accurately asserts, the next 5 to 10 years are adequate horizons for those interested in using IV in training. Despite hype by some manufacturers, it is highly unlikely that formats with superior credentials to Laservision will be fully developed and accepted within the next five years. Albeit even material that has been designed and developed for Laservision can be readily transformed onto emerging formats. Robust instructional design will be capable of being transported to other formats. Anyway the subject matter of most designs will be obsolete within this time frame. Perhaps the most prudent decision organisations wishing to invest in IV can make is to purchase equipment capable of being upgraded in the future, or lease wherever possible.
Assured growth paths for hardware are important as is warranty and maintenance for the major components. This is simplified if suppliers with strong reputations for customer service are used. Since price differentials between turnkey systems and combination systems are not that great anymore there seems to be no logical reason to consider equipment combinations which are unproven and will have potentially difficult warranty and maintenance. For some specific single applications, combination hardware may be cheaper than proprietary systems. However, initial savings on hardware may be dissipated by lack of access to off the shelf courseware.
Bosco (1986) claims to have undertaken the most comprehensive summary of empirical evaluations (29 evaluations) of IV application for instruction. Bosco's (1986) meta analysis reveals that there is not enough evidence to establish that IV is consistently superior to comparative traditional methods. However, positive results were found for user attitude and training time efficiency. Of the 29 evaluations considered, 11 concluded that IV led to increases in skill achievement but five showed no benefit with two reporting mixed results.
Most IV evaluations essentially consist of a comparison between IV and traditional methods. Comparative studies can produce useful information but they also fail to attend to important factors, such as the long term impact of instruction provided by IV. Reeves (1988) is supported by Bosco and Wagner (1988) in criticising the comparative paradigm of research. Reeves (1988) proposes alternative approaches to evaluating IV which include consideration of instructional events, cognitive psychology, computer based instruction and systems models.
In contrast to this view Gersten (1987) considers that the same instructional variables affecting learner performance with traditional materials affect learning with IV, a view which appears only partially correct. Gersten (1987) ignores IVs unique pedagogical control characteristics, such as freeze frame, slow motion, search capabilities, addressability, etc. Evaluations of IV should begin to look beyond simple comparisons and to consider instructional design and goals of courseware and curriculum (Drake, 1987).
The failure to establish equivocal gains for IV may have more to do with the method of investigation and yardsticks imposed than inadequacies of the technology. When more appropriate and sophisticated methodologies are employed, such as Scriven's (1988) merit and marketability approach, which used the Key Evaluation Checklist (KEC) to evaluate the Ask the Workers videodisc, then more usable results are forthcoming. Scriven concluded that videodisc technology can compete with other training delivery methods in a cost effective manner. As Lyness (1987) suggests, future evaluations need to also consider what individual learning differences are best suited to IV.
Manning (1983) reports a high degree of student satisfaction in mastering complex, high stress tasks. Schroeder et al (1986) found that a majority of students indicated that a combination of videodisc and role playing is optimal for leadership training. Pieper et al (1984) notes favourable responses from students using an Interactive Graphics Simulator, while Rhodes and Cervany (1984) note an absence of frequently reported negative attitudes to using television for training.
Vada's (1989) reports that students find IV appealing to use but some resented taking courses alone, preferring small group learning situations. A significant consideration, which is given scant attention by the literature, is that many learners prefer some form of human interaction in learning tasks. Vadas (1989) also notes a significant percentage of students also prefer solitary learning circumstances. Accommodating these individual preferences is possible with learning involving IV and needs to be considered by instructional designers as well as those seeking to incorporate IV into learning programmes. Consideration of the context of using IV may well be as important as the content.
Bosco and Wagner (1988) report that 80 percent of workers preferred IV to videotape (a similar finding to Vada), 70% found it easier to concentrate using IV, and 78% believed they learned more from IV training, with 98% deciding it was easier to use than videotape. Workers consistently commented that one of the main advantages of IV was the opportunities it provided to review material.
Bosco (1986) reported that a reduction in training time was recorded in nine of eleven cases it was measured. Ebner et al's (1984b) results indicate that army personnel learning to administer intermuscular injections may not learn more using IV but they do learn faster (four hours to complete the training as opposed to six in normal classrooms). Manning's (1983) study indicates that reduced teaching time is needed to train army medics using IV. Drake (1987) reports a significant time reduction in training time (40-60%) for engineers and machine operators learning technical skills.
Drake (1987) does, however, warn that comparisons of time taken to complete training should not be given too much credence. Of more importance, Drake (1987) rightly argues, is the level of skills retained, mastered and transferred to the job. There are few studies celebrating the training savings possible with IV design which examine the long term effects of using IV. Of these Ebner et al (1984b) considers that army personnel completing IV training on intermuscular injections did result in longer retention of information. There are no strong indications (apart from Ebner's research) of whether the content of the information or style of presentation has any effect on long term retention. Hannafin and Colamaio's (1987) research indicates that for practised items, such as cardiopulmonary rescuscitation, significant advantages accrue for factual learning, and to a lesser extent procedural learning, especially when the learner is permitted to control the interactions. More investigation is needed to establish what content and methods of presentation are most suited to IV. An investigation of another evaluation of IV to teach cardiopulmonary rescuscitation by Lyness (1987) found no significant difference over traditional methods but superior performance for IV in teaching a specific procedure (obstructed airway in basic life support). IV is particularly effective for teaching mechanical and procedural skills (Priestman, 1984). Experience with programmed learning indicates that personalising instruction by allowing students to proceed at their own pace, and the provision of immediate feedback, are two of many instructional design tenets suited to IV. For some areas of training, a no significant difference result for IV is considered cause for optimism (Schroeder et al, 1986; Pieper et al, 1984).
Evaluations of more sophisticated training such as simulations, support the use of IV, albeit if only on a raw cost effectiveness basis. US military human resource laboratories have found that IV can provide sophisticated simulation training that is more cost effective than hands on training in many technical applications (Meyer, 1984). In consequence, the US Department of Defence has taken a leading role in the development of IV in an attempt to find more cost effective utilisation of learning resources. As a result IV has been elected by the US military as its future training delivery medium resulting in the installation of 50,000 fully interactive systems (IEDS) over five years (Screen Digest, February, 1986, p.38).
Netta and Staub (1988) consider that computer controlled laser disc results in faster learning and is being taken up by industry, who appear unconcerned about the need to equivocally establish the effectiveness of the technology. This may be because industry perceives obvious advantages of IV for training but this could also be a result of evaluations into IV which have not been published. Presumably the findings favoured the use of IV.
Bosco and Wagner (1988) have conducted one of the few evaluations of IV which transcend the purely classroom based comparative research paradigm. A comparison of the same content (hazard communications training) was made using similar media. One group was given training involving videotapes with some classroom follow up and another was presented with the same material on IV. In contrast to many evaluations of IV, this study indicated a significant cohort group (209 workers), randomly assigned to groups at 15 General Motors plants. The preponderance of high achievers (87%) were trained on IV and contrasted with the low achievers (80%) using the videotape method. Final test scores averaged 83% compared with 62% for those using the videotape method. But Bosco and Wagner (1988) caution that "Care must be taken to introduce, maintain and support the use of [IV] in order for it to produce the intended training outcomes..."(p.11).
A study conducted by IBM (Vadas, 1987) compared group and individual training using IV with classroom methods. Statistically significant learning gains were reported on most aspects of final testing which contrasts with the bulk of findings. Most researchers either report a no significant difference result or slight gains in favour of IV with often significant gains being attributable to one aspect of the instruction. Vadas (1988) reported that a high percentage (80) of students reached mastery of the material, a result which is supported by Bosco and Wagner (1988) and, given the nature of the technology, one which should be repeatable. Curiously much of the literature assumes mastery learning, which is crucial for industrial training, will be greater using IV but usually fails to evaluate (or report) its incidence.
Drake (1987) reports that IV is on par with instructor led training at Goodyear Industrial Training Corporation. Slight improvements in favour of IV were noticed by the Digital Equipment Corporation's computer maintenance training programme.
Communications operators can be taught to operate complex pieces of equipment by IV simulation. Young and Tosti (1984) found that "A statistical comparison of learners certified using videodisc simulator equipment showed no difference in the actual ability to operate complicated communications equipment"(p.41). Ferrier (1982) described the use of IV for competency based training, judging it to be a cost effective adjunct in certain applications in training for leadership, management and organisational development.
Doulton (1984) reported on the use of IV in secondary school science lessons in the United States. A comparison of normal classroom experiments with IV simulated experiments was conducted. Results indicated that when IV is integrated effectively, improved standards of laboratory work are evident, as was a greater range of exploration by more talented students. An added bonus is the time saved in comparison with setting up normal experiments. This has important time over task management implications. Doulton's findings are supported by the research in industrial settings. Leonard (1989) found IV to be equivalent to conventional laboratory training for promoting the understanding of basic principles. IV has been found to be particularly useful for developing skills for diagnosing errors and mistakes in complex sequencing activities and with equipment which is expensive or dangerous to practice with, such as aircraft maintenance (Uhlig and Feldman, 1985). Teh and Perry (1984) reported the results of an Australian developmental project which designed and evaluated IV based instructional materials for teaching the concept of weather forecasting. IV materials were found to be an effective teaching medium in geography, with trial subjects (who were trainee teachers) achieving superior scores for content understanding. Manning (1983) considers IV to be particularly valuable for managing stressful task learning. There has been a positive response to the Teddy Bear Disc which has been produced by the Open University for use at residential summer schools. IVs are seen as a way of augmenting or even replacing summer school laboratory sessions as well as allowing students to participate in experiments otherwise unavailable to them (Williams, 1984). Even though the subject matter of these IVs is more applicable to education than training there are comparable benefits which can be transferred to a training environment.
The data available suggests that IV is an effective teaching and learning medium, especially in the area of training simulation. Removing the variability of human teaching is a major advantage of IV courseware. Learner acceptability of the medium is established. Comparison of IV and traditional methods of instruction must provide a detailed analysis of cost effectiveness and learner effectiveness. As Kearsly (1983) observes, computers have certain advantages in instructional settings, such as permitting "students to learn at their own pace, individual learning styles are considered, resulting in increased student satisfaction. Most importantly, there is more control over learning materials and learning processes"(p.14).
Bork (1984) believes computers are going to be an important factor in all human learning because they make learning truly interactive for large numbers of learners on a cost efficient basis. He also observes that, "... many of the videodisc plus computer modules produced so far by video people are extremely weak with regard to interaction"(p.3) He contends that students and teachers are content with very weak forms of interaction because these are such an improvement over non interactive learning media. Bork's observations seem well founded.
How IV technology can affect learner interaction requires examination. The University of Nebraska Group has defined four levels of interactivity for a videodisc (Hart, 1984; Priestman, 1984). The sophistication of these levels affects the kind of learning possible. Categories which are learner based, rather than technologically based, are being developed and should provide a more appropriate system of classification.
Level One is the most basic level. Information can be fragmented, suspended, repeated and integrated into new wholes, but specific sections cannot be called up quickly or accurately. The features of "freeze frame", and slow motion (in forward or reverse) are normally used via the keypad. At Level Two a small microprocessor built into the videodisc player allows accurate random access for video segments or single frames, allowing replay in any given order at a given pace. Programme information is recorded on the disc, and forms an integral, but unchangeable, part of the system.
Level Three involves linking an external microcomputer to control the videodisc player. An additional source of information is supplied from the microprocessor's memory system. Level Three interactivity is sought by most IV designers, but it is worth bearing in mind that many worthwhile training activities are possible at lower levels of interactive sophistication, which are relatively simple to design.
Level Four involves linking microcomputers to large databases for storing and running programmes. Problems with main frame time sharing delays and telephone line capacity will restrict large scale implementation of this level for some time, although videotex and ISDN could assist in overcoming this problem. Access charges have to be accounted for and, although competitive, will still prove a problem for many training institutions and organisations.
Rhodes and Azbell (1988) have proposed three forms of IV design - reactive, coactive and proactive - which relate to the degree of control that the user has over content of an IV. Proactive designs offer minimal user control over the content and structure of a programme. User reaction is predetermined by the designer, whereas coactive designs allow user control over both content and structure, permitting control over the pace of presentations and type of feedback. Rhodes and Azbell (1988) consider IV technology is now sufficiently advanced to permit "transactive design". Such design can, theoretically at least, permit users to communicate with a wide range of media to develop their own "problem definition and analytical procedures". While the technology required to achieve a transactive design does exist (such as remote computer databases, image catalogues, etc), in the authors' experience effectively integrating such a complex array of technologies is not feasible at present or in the foreseeable future. Rhodes and Azbell (1988) do provide a useful framework for considering IV design alerting designers to the reality that "Effective design requires a conscious choice of the form of interaction appropriate for a given application"(p.44).
An unrealised potential exists for learners to control instructional presentations, without lessening the overall coherence of the courseware. Hedberg and Perry (1985) claim that IV has eliminated the requirement for materials to be structured for the learner. They assert that not only has IV improved interactivity with visual materials, which can be incorporated into an instructional sequence, but interactivity beyond the designers' original intention is also possible. While the flexibility of IV design is important the crucial problem lies in getting teachers to use such software effectively. Open ended designs are no value under the control of closed minded instructors! Hedberg and Perry (1984) also claim that the addition of "dynamic and static visual display enabled students to "see" events that were not previously possible as part of CAI lessons"(p.6)
Nievergelt (1982) agrees that programmes involving human to machine dialogues should avoid designs which are passive in format. Instead learners should be given as much control as possible over the programmes, or at least opportunities for regaining control at some stage of the instructional sequence. While the potential for learner control of well designed IVs is acknowledged and considered desirable, there is insufficient evidence to date to refute or deny these assertions.
Few trainers should need to be reminded that learning is not a passive process. Understanding and knowledge involve active processing rather than passive reception. A consistent claim made in favour of using IV is that "it changes the student from passive observer to active participant" (Anandam and Kelly, 1981, p.3). The ineffectiveness of modern media as a learning device (in comparison with the written text) is due to the lack of opportunity for interrogation. Allied to this observation is the criticism that the learner loses control over the pace of instruction (Clark, 1984). New theories of learning which will inform instructional design will have to be formulated to allow for these new ways of interacting with the subject matter. Such theories will need to be incorporated into IV designs. Hedberg (1985/86) has suggested a set of design heuristics for IV which encourages student involvement with the process of learning. If the claims made for IV are correct, then learners will benefit by a medium more amenable to individual learning styles.
Deshler and Gay (1986) isolate initial learning theory assumptions about videodisc technology which should be considered before proceeding. Videodisc systems are more likely to be effective if learning theories inform their design; application of videodisc systems should not be limited to lower levels of behaviour or cognitive functioning; the capabilities of interaction (control, feedback, pace) inherent in videodisc microcomputer technology can expand access and multiply the flexible use of visual materials.
Microcomputers can provide a more individualised learning experience. Computer assisted learning has largely been developed on the basis of learner interaction. Perhaps the greatest limitation of computer learning has been its delivery, which is predominantly in text or in diagrams, without the visual and aural attractiveness of television. Film and video do not always lend themselves to informing about higher order concepts and it is often difficult for a learner to conceive actions presented in text or diagrammatic form. Instructional television has not produced improvements in learning to the extent originally predicted. Perhaps this is largely due to the receptive mode of learning it encourages (Laurillard, 1982). Certainly the ongoing linear nature of training television does not adjust for the pace and learning style of individual students (Teh and Perry, 1984). Capitalising on the strengths of the two media, while limiting the disadvantages, should result in more active learner interaction.
The cost of developing IV with even a reasonable amount of interactivity is great in terms of designer hours and technology. Media production, especially broadcast quality television, requires a large investment in equipment, and high labour costs. Competent planning is vital with this medium if costs are to be contained and a long shelf life for the courseware is to be assured.
IV will not become a reality in training initiatives and tertiary institutions unless economies of scale can be developed. How this is likely to occur is not clear. If the lack of mutual cooperation in the production of curricula and audiovisual resources in Australia to date is any indication, there is no cause for optimism (Hosie, 1985). Perhaps certain attributes of the technology may be exploited to overcome this problem. A compromise solution to the inevitable conflict of local curriculum idiosyncrasies and the need for economy of scale is needed. Generic discs (Jonassen, 1984) or a video databank (Cohen, 1984), containing material in a variety of forms related to subject areas, could be developed to form a visual database suitable for use in a variety of circumstances. Generic discs could provide video programming at reasonable cost for a wide audience, while allowing for local learning requirements. Alternatively, there are now a significant number of interactive videodiscs available commercially for lease or purchase, but these are concerned with specific subjects. Why IV has been slow to be accepted by trainers in Australia
Given the obvious capacity of IV to enhance learning it is worthwhile speculating why it has been so slow, to date, to be used for training in Australia. Lange (1985) isolated some of the reasons for the reluctance of tertiary educators to use telecommunications to deliver education. With modification, these reasons are applicable to failure of trainers to adopt IV, another new educational technology.
Spence (1986) considers the reason television technology has been given almost universal acceptance stems from the ease of relating to the technology. Paradoxically, IV is almost as simple to use as a television receiver, and about as difficult to use as a personal computer. Later model hardware is essentially turnkey. Poor marketing and indecision over format standards have confused trainers who may otherwise have used IV. Relatively high cost (both financial and personal) and confusion over technical standards have combined with marked downturn in expenditure on training by organisations. In addition, IV is yet to be seen as a significant improvement over existing training methods, therefore retarding its acceptance.
Rogers (1960) has categorised people into classes on an extended continuum of innovativeness. This continuum has been refined by Spence (1986) to consist of innovators, early adapters, late majority and laggards. Collective inaction by trainers and educators towards the adoption of IV suggests grouping in the later categories late majority and laggards) is appropriate.
Despite pronouncements to the contrary (Dawkins, 1989) it is clear that quality of training offering is definitely not foremost in funding bureaucrats' minds. Of paramount concern is an increase in the quantity of training. Such concerns emanate more from crass political motivations than any real concern for the delivery of effective training programmes. Hence, arguments pertaining to improving the quality of course delivery are unlikely to sway government authorities. Therefore the most effective approach for introducing IV will be to clearly demonstrate unit cost savings.
Well designed IV courses can result in consistently high quality course delivery, and more rapid learning by students (up to 60% faster than traditional methods). It is often preferred to traditional teaching methods and can be completed when it is convenient for students, not trainers.
Combining the visual stimulation of moving and still images with the interactive capabilities of computer technology has resulted in a potentially powerful learning medium. However, before IV can become widely accepted for training, some important issues must be resolved. A substantial amount of high quality courseware needs to be developed. For the cost of developing courseware to be justified, it needs to be relevant to the needs of a large and diverse learning population.
Poorly considered usage of IV will result in inappropriate adoption of the technology. There is an urgent need for effective evaluation to establish the type of learning best suited to the medium, and whether cost justification for large scale adoption can be established. Large scale adoption of IV will require a substantial commitment of funds and energy, if software of a high enough quality is to be developed. Trainer resistance and the need for retraining is a factor that should not be overlooked. Training budgets are always at risk, which means that for IV to be developed other areas of endeavour may suffer. Decisions on the degree of importance should be based on solid cost effectiveness analyses and training rationale.
The following is a case study on the planning and design of interactive learning materials designed for the State Energy Commission of Western Australia (SECWA). The learning package is entitled How to get the best from HF mobile radio.
This problem is exacerbated by the large turnover of staff in northern regions, especially Karratha. High staff turnover, variable and low levels of literacy, a geographically dispersed student population, and a critical shortage of willing and qualified training staff makes computer delivered training a logical choice. Previous IV initiatives in the area of communications technology have been well received. In an organisation that has considerable involvement in technology, delivering training via IV is considered to be a logical extension of this commitment.
Video is a major component of this project, largely because the basic literacy levels amongst the target audience mean that reading large amounts of text from a screen for information (which is a doubtful training practice anyway), could have a demotivating effect on these learners. Therefore it was decided to use actors to deliver the information via video.
There is a shortage of highly skilled engineering and technical staff to conduct courses for users of HF radio. In this context we are referring to training mainly for non technical users as opposed to purely technical training. Moreover, these staff are technical practitioners, not instructors. Hence, engineering and technical skills are a scarce commodity which cannot be spared for user training, although such staff were available to act as consultants for IV training initiatives.
Employees requiring training are geographically dispersed and have a wide range of training backgrounds and abilities. Travel costs in a state extending over 2.5 million square kilometres strongly mitigate against many worthwhile traditional training initiatives. As many staff are involved in critical operations, interruptions to their work schedules are not only disruptive but potentially disastrous for the organisation. Since few volunteers could be found with the requisite skills or inclination to travel the length and breadth of the state to conduct the training, there simply were few realistic alternatives to IV.
Training is required that has a technical user orientation, which is consistent, replicable, readily updateable and motivational. In short, taking the training to the client and making it available when it suited them to have it was clearly the way to proceed.
Unfortunately, the design and delivery system does restrict the kind of design possible. For example, slow search times mean that random access to other parts of the programme is not feasible. The design is constrained by IV delivery hardware and software. Of necessity, the instructional design is more "reactive" (Rhodes and Azbell, 1988) and "linear" than the author would prefer. Conceptually, the design is closer to the necessary, which is akin to the "tutor" design postulated by Taylor (1980), and as such contains aspects which permit some learner control of the design structure and content, i.e. "coactive" elements as conceives by Rhodes and Azbell (1988).
A pamphlet containing a summary of essential information contained in the book was also issued to all users. The pamphlet is intended to be a discardable resource because it has to be re-issued every six months with updated base station schedules.
Both the book and pamphlet form the basis of the information presented in the IV and as such have strong reference value for the user. Also, for those users in remote areas, the print based materials are their only source of information.
Allen, B. & Erickson, D. (1986). Training interactive videodisc designers. Journal of Instructional Development, 9(2), 19-28.
Amada, G. (1984). Why educators should take the interactive media plunge. Educational Industrial Television, 15(6), 45-46, 56.
Anandam, K. & Kelly, D. (1981). GEM. Guided exposure to microcomputers: An interactive video program. Miami: Dade Community College, 3.
Bayard-White, C. (1985). Interactive case studies and directory. Council for Educational Technology.
Beausey, M. (1988). Videodisc development: No lone rangers, please. Training, 25(2),65-68.
Bork, A. (1984). Computers and the future: Education. Computer Education, 8(1), 1-4.
Branck, C. et al (1987). The validation of an interactive videodisc as an alternative to traditional teaching techniques: Auscultation of the heart. Educational Technology, 27(3), 16-22.
Brandt, K. (1986). Interactive video: When to consider its use. San Jose State University. ERIC ED272174.
Bosco, J. (1984). Interactive video: Educational tool or toy. Educational Technology, April 1984, 13-18.
Bosco, J. (1986). An analysis of evaluation of interactive video. Educational Technology, May 1986, 7-18.
Bosco, J. & Wagner, J. (1988). A comparison of the effectiveness of interactive laser disc and classroom video tape for safety instruction of General Motors workers. Educational Technology, 28 (6), 15-22.
Clark, D. (1984). The role of the videodisc in education and training. Media in Education and Development, December, 190-192.
Cohen, V. (1984). Interactive features in the design of videodisc materials. Educational Technology, 24 (1), 16-20.
Cushall, M. et al (1987). Research on learning from interactive videodiscs: A review of the literature and suggestions for future research activities. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (Atlanta, Georgia, 26 February - 1 March).
Dalton, D. (1987). How effective is interactive video in improving performance and attitude? Educational Technology, 26 (1), 27-29.
Dawkins, J. (1989). Response by the Minister for Employment, Education and Training to An Apple for the Teacher? Choice and technology in learning. Report of the House of Representatives Standing Committee on Employment, Education and Training.
De Bloois, M. (1982). Principles for designing interactive videodisc instructional materials. In M.L. De Bloois (Ed.), Videodisc microcomputer courseware design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Deshler, D. & Gay, G. (1986). Educational strategies for interactive videodisc design. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association (67th), San Francisco, California, 16-20 April.
Doulton, A. (1984). Interactive video in training. Media in Education and Development, December, 205-206.
Dunbar, R. (1985). Computer videodisc educational systems. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 1 (1), 21-38. http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet1/dunbar.html
Ebner, D., Manning, D., Brooks, F., Mahoney, J., Tippert, H. & Balson,P. (1984a). Videodiscs can improve instructional efficiency. Instructional Innovator, 29(6), 26-28.
Ebner, D., Danaher, B., Mahoney, J., Tippert, H. & Balson, P. (1984b). Current issues in interactive videodisc and computer based instruction. Instructional Innovator, 29(3), 24-29.
Ferrier, S. (1982). Computer-aided interactive video instruction: Closing the gap between needs and outcomes in competency-based training. Programmed learning and Educational Technology, 19, 311-16.
Fitz-enz, J. (1988). Proving the value of training. Personnel. March, 17-22.
Gagne, M. & Briggs, G. (1981). Principles of instructional design. New York:.Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Geber, B. (1989). Whither interactive videodisc? Training, 26(3), 47-49.
Gersten, R. et al (1987). Direct instruction research: The third decade. Remedial and Special Education, 8(6), 48-56.
Gery, G. (1987). Making CBT happen: Prescription for successful implementation of computer based training in your organisation. Boston: Weingarten Publications.
Gery, G. (1989). CD-ROM: The medium has a message. Training, January, 45-51.
Gienke, M. (1984). Cambridge video disc project. Paper for Australian Society for Educational Technology Conference, September.
Geber, B. & Pribble, R. (1989). Express training at Federal Express. Training, June, 12.
Griffith, M. (1984). Planning for interactive videodisc. Media in Education and Development, December, 196-200.
Guba, E. & Lincoln, Y. (1982). Epistemological and methodological bases of naturalistic enquiry. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 30, 233-52.
Hannafin, M. (1985). Empirical issues in the study of computer assisted interactive video. Educational Communication and Technology, 33(4), 235-247.
Hannafin, M. & Colamaio, M. (1985). The effects of variations in lesson control and practice on learning from interactive video. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 35(4), 203-12.
Hannafin, M. & Colamaio, M. (1987). The effects of locus of instructional control and practice on learning from interactive video. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (Atlanta, Georgia, 26 February).
Harless, W. (1986). An interactive videodisc drama: The case of Frank Hall. (Special issue: Research and development in instructional interactive video) Journal of Computer Based Instruction, 13 (4).
Hart, A. (1984). Interactive video. Media in Education and Development, December, 207-208.
Hartley, J. (1981). Learner initiatives in computer assisted learning. In U. Howe (Ed.), Microcomputers in Secondary Education. London: Kegan Paul.
Hedberg, J. (1985/6). Designing interactive videodisc learning materials. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 1(2), 24-31. http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet1/hedberg2.html
Hedberg, J. & Perry, N. (1984). Design of interactive video materials: Problems and prospects. Paper presented to the Computer-Aided Learning in Tertiary Education Conference, Brisbane, September.
Hedberg, J. & Perry, N. (1985). Human computer interaction and CAI: A review and research prospectus. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 1(1), 12-20. http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet1/hedberg1.html
Hedberg, J. & Perry, N. (1985). Learning task requirements and the design of inter-active video. Paper presented to the Annual Conference of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Anaheim, California, Jan 1985.
Hosie, P. (1985). Share and share alike. The Practising Administrator, 7(3), 4-48.
House of Representatives Standing Committee on Employment, Education and Training. (1989). An apple for the teacher? Choice and technology in learning. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Jonassen, D. (1984). The generic disc: Realizing the potential of adaptive, interactive videodiscs. Educational Technology, January 1984, 21-26.
Jones, T. (1988). Dovetailing chunks: A technique for optimizing interactive videodisc design. Technological Horizons in Education, 16(2), 90-94.
Kearsley, G. (1983). Computer-based training: A guide to selection and implementation. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Kearsley, G. & Frost, J. (1985). Design factors for successful videodisc based Instruction. Educational Technology, 25 (3), 7-13.
Lange, J. (1985). University use of satellite, project report. Perth, March 1985.
Large, J. (1989). Interactive videodisc slowed by mistake. Sunday Times, 2 Nov 1989.
Laurillard, D. (1982). The potential of interactive video. Journal of Educational Television, 8(3), 173-180.
Laurillard, D. (1984). Interactive video and the control of learning. Educational Technology, June, 7-15.
Laurillard, D. (1985). The Teddy Bears' Disc. Media in Education and Development, 18(1), 37-41.
Leonard, W. (1989). A comparison of student reactions to biology instruction by interactive videodisc or conventional laboratory. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 26, 2.
Lyness, A. (1987). Performance and norms of time for adult learners instructed in CPR by an interactive videodisc system. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Conference on Research in Nursing Education, San Francisco, January 14-16.)
Manning, D. et al. (1983). Student Acceptance of videodisk-based programs for paramedical training. Technological Horizons in Education, 11(3), 105-08.
Meyer, R. (1984). Borrow this new military technology, and help win the war for kids minds. American School Board Journal, 7(6, June), 23-28.
Netta, F. & Staub, U. (1988). The videodisc as a training aide. In U. Staub, U. & F. Lovis (Eds.), Remote education and informatics: Teleteaching. Netherlands: Elsevier Science.
Nievergelt, J. (1982). The computer-driven screen: An emerging mass communications two way medium. Educational Media International, 1, 7.
Njie, V. & Cramer, E. (1988). Bidwell pre-computer literacy program: An evaluation of IBM's principle of the literacy system (PALS). Pittsburg: Bidwell Training Centre Inc.
Parsloe, E. (1984). Learning by doing. Media in Education and Development, December, 201-204.
Parsloe, E. (1983). Interactive video. Media in Education and Development, June, 83-86.
Peppard, H. (1989). Language learning with laser. Journal of Reading, 32(7), 628-633. Special issue: New technologies and reading.
Pieper, W. et al. (1984). Interactive graphics simulator: Design, development and cost effectiveness/cost evaluation. Final report.
Priestman, T. (1984). Interactive video and its applications. Media in Education and Development, December, 182-186.
Reeves, T. (1988). Research and evaluation models for the study of interactive video. Special issue: Research and development in instructional interactive video. Journal of Computer Based Instruction, 13 (4).
Rhodes, D. & Azbell, J. (1988). Designing interactive video instruction professionally. In Piscurkich (Ed.), Instructional Technology. American Society for Training and Development.
Rhodes, E & Cervany, R. (1984). Interactive video as an economic teaching supplement. Journal of Economic Education, 15 (4), 325-28.
Romoszowski, A. (1981). Designing instructional systems. New York: Kogan Page.
Rogers, E. (1960). Social change in rural society. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts. Russell, A. et al. (1985). The use and evaluation of videodiscs in the chemistry laboratory. Journal of Chemical Education, 62, 420-22.
Salpeter, J. (1986). Interactive video: The truth behind the promises. Classroom Computer Learning, 7(3), 26-34. Salisbury D., Richards, B. & Klein, J. (1985). Prescription for the design of proactive activities for learning: An integration from instructional design theories. Florida: Florida State University and Hazeltine.
Scriven, M. (1988). In Steele, J. (Ed.), Ask the workers evaluation. Sydney: Australian Caption Centre.
Schroeder, J. (1983-4). A Pedagogical Mode of Instruction for Interactive Videodisc. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 12(4), 311-17.
Spence, W. (1986). The adoption of innovations in theory and practice. Paper presented at Ed Tech'86 Conference, Perth.
Steele, J. (1990). Interactive multimedia workshop. ASET EdTech'90 Conference, University of Sydney, 7 July.
Taylor, R. (Ed.). (1980). Computers in the school curriculum: Tutor, tool, tutee. Teachers College Press.
Teh, G. & Perry, N. (1984). The use of the interactive videodisc in teaching geographic concepts. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Perth, November.
Uhlig, G. & Feldman, F. (1983). Interactive video. Education, 106(1), 3-8.
Williams, K. (1984). Interactive videodisc at the Open University. Media in Education and Development, December, 193-195.
Wilson, L. (1987). What the research says about computer assisted instruction: Computer based training today. Alexandria: American Society for Training and Development.
Wolman, R. (1988). The Future Looks Bright for IVI. Data Training, 32-37.
Yampolsky, M. (1983). Word processor training on intelligent videodisc. Videodisc/Videotext, 3(4), 281-89.
Young, J. & Schlieve, P. (1984). Videodisc simulation: Training for the future. Educational Technology, April, 41-42.
Young, J. & Tosti, D. (1984). The effectiveness of interactive videodisc in training. U.S. Army Technical Report.
Zeidler, D. & McIntosh, W. (1989). The effectiveness of laser disc generated models on conceptual shifts in college students. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching.
___ The Maligned Videodisc Makes a Comeback. The Australian, 31/10/89, 25.
___ Optical Discs: A Review of Formats. Screen Digest, Feb 1987.
___ Videodisc Monitor, Feb, 1987.
___ Screen Digest, March, 1986, 57.
___ Rewritable Optical Storage A Billion Dollar Winner for Sony. The Australian 26/6/90, 26.
|Author: Peter Hosie completed BEd, BA Hons and MBus degrees. Currently he is Personnel Project Officer at the University of WA. Previously he has been an Executive Officer for the WA Government's Task Force on Telecommunications in Education and Training, a training programme designer for SECWA, an education officer with the Audio Visual Education Branch of the Education Department and a secondary school teacher. He has published over twenty five papers on technologically mediated learning and has been involved in design and production of educational TV programmes, some involving interactive techniques.
Please cite as: Hosie, P. (1990). Using interactive videodisc for training. In R. Atkinson and C. McBeath (Eds.), Open Learning and New Technology: Conference proceedings, 189-217. Perth: Australian Society for Educational Technology WA Chapter. http://www.aset.org.au/confs/olnt90/hosie.html