In an earlier paper Hosie (1993) reviewed the research on the use of Interactive Videodisc (IVD) in training contexts. This paper extends the scope of the review to include additional material and to consider the implications of these findings for the use of interactive multimedia in higher education. The perspectives of three main groups of stakeholders are considered - managers, teachers and students. Some of the factors relating to the needs and interests of these groups, which contribute to the successful use of interactive videodisc and multimedia in higher education, are examined. Singapore is taken as a case study because of its commitment both to technology and education and in particular, to the use of high technology in education.
As we move from storage and retrieval of information to interactive multimedia, the emphasis shifts from teacher driven control to student driven control. This moves the process from "information w~ to "integrated information for learning" (Potter & Chickering, 1991, p13). The addition of still am moving visual images becomes one aspect of the computer integrated package with which the learner interacts. With the advent of increasingly sophisticated hypermedia hardware and software, which allow users freedom to browse and navigate through information according to individual interests, learners are increasingly able to use the medium to a mode of self expression, understanding and d~ interpretation (Turner & Dipinto, 1992, Lemke, 1993).
Student balance and control by over learning strategy and content is important. IVD and IMM, for example, can provide a vast information base which is quite different from that available from a computer alone. The more information available, the greater the flexibility in combining sequences. Encouraging individual routes through information assists students to become more actively involved in the learning process.
This in turn requires teachers to adopt a different view of their role in facilitating learning. This may involve changes in attitude and the acquisition of a number of new skills. This strategy calls for a different mix of resources and in turn places demands on the administration system. This may lead to a fresh look at the organisational structures which support the teaching and learning process.
Another aspect of needs analysis is consideration of the context in which the innovation is being introduced. This involves taking into account not only the needs of potential users of the innovation, but also the needs of non-users who may be affected by the innovation. This in turn means that the organisations and the important sub-groups within these organisations should be consulted. How will subject specialists who deem their subject to be less suitable for an IMM approach be affected? What are the likely global effects on the curriculum? What effect will this have on the allocation of resources?
Szabo, (1992, p7) distinguishes three phases in the process of introducing an educational innovation (the phase of implementation, identified by Ibsen and Lewis):
The most challenging aspect of managing any innovative process relates to the human factors involved. Aldridge (1977) and Rogers (1962) identify five social factors which affect acceptance of an innovation.
A review of the literature (Brandt, 1986) identified a number of situations where the use of IVD should be considered for a training delivery system. These situations appear relevant to IMM. They are:
Most of the factors listed above also apply to higher education although the characteristics of the Students population, the time frames and teaching constraints may be very different.
However, individual learner preferences are an important factor in the design of any learning and many learners prefer to interact with a live teacher. It is becoming much easier, from the technology viewpoint, for the teacher to create multimedia presentations for the lecture theatre, tutorial and workshop. The distinction between authoring, presentation and word processing software is becoming increasingly blurred as new and more sophisticated versions of software are issued. The software and hardware are available and teachers can acquire the skills to use them. As students become more sophisticated and demanding in their expectations, the challenge passes back to the management to provide the rooms, equipment and technical expertise to service such developments and to ensure that they are being used, not only in a way that demonstrates technical quality, but which also ensures educational excellence.
Managers at the policy end of the educational process and students at the learning end are in a more flexible position. The former have, in theory at least, some freedom to influence and modify the system: the latter are in the position of responding to what the system offers. It can present itself to them in ways which encourage either dependence or independence. Teachers, in contrast, are in the middle, the ones who are both implementers and products of the system. They enter teaching, whether formally trained or not, with expectations generated over a lifetime; they have to operate as teachers within the existing constraints of the resources available in terms of rooms (for example, size, layout, equipment, availability), class sizes and contact hours, course design and student population. They are subject to the pressures both of the management and the students. If IMM is to "catch on" with teachers, it must be presented in a way which not only supports their own professional skill development, but is also perceived as having the active support, encouragement and reward of management and acceptance by their students. A tall order!
Because of its 'entrepot' status and a relatively large floating professional population, it is potentially open to influences from outside. It also sees itself as a leader and pace setter, distributing ideas and providing leadership to other ASEAN nations. As a frugal nation it is extremely conscious of the value of its human resources and puts great emphasis on education. It also faces a continuing labour shortage and an aging workforce in the next few years (Ku, 1992). In all of these respects, it appears a country ripe for the integration of an interactive multimedia approach into its educational system.
Higher education in Singapore includes two universities and four polytechnics. The polytechnics, because of their brief to service business and industry, have a keen competitive interest in all applications of technology including education. The universities, on the other hand, are less likely to seek to demonstrate their excellence through the application of technology to teaching and learning. Aldridge (1993, p.68) cites the unique role "that the polytechnic can play in areas where industry, business, professionals, researchers and technicians come together to generate sound practice and theory for attaining educational knowledge, skills and performance objectives to meet manpower needs." As IMM becomes an increasingly preferred method for training delivery in industry it is likely that the polytechnics, which are specifically geared to preparing students for business and industrial life, will follow industry's lead and increasingly integrate IMM into their regular teaching routines.
The role of the polytechnics in relation to the secondary schools should not be overlooked. The secondary schools provide the students for the polytechnics and much effort is expended in school liaison activities in forging links between them institutions. One aspect of this is the giving of assistance to schools in the use of IMM.
On the other hand, there is emerging evidence of encouragement to develop multimedia for teaching purposes within higher education, but given the restraints that apply universally to educational institutions, it is unlikely, except in rare instances, to provide the funding which would allow academic staff in general to do much more than access the technology. One of the first avenues of access is likely to be the lecture theatre. Given the existence of large and well equipped classrooms, and the extensive use of overhead transparencies (OHTs) in teaching, it becomes not only fairly straightforward technically to produce these OHTs on computer, this is a development that potentially simplifies and enhances the teacher's work in the classroom as a sophisticated replacement for OHPs. One major technical drawback which is still to be surmounted in this area is that, unlike OHTs which can be shown under normal lighting conditions, computer generated visuals require the room to be darkened for maximum clarity. They are thus more like slides than transparencies. Slides are appropriately used when there is a need for students to observe and form a mental picture in fine detail. They are not always the most appropriate medium for the simple emphasis of key points and concepts when learning may be best enhanced through student note taking.
This limited access in the lecture theatre, however, can have major spinoffs. One of these is to familiarise staff with the potential of the technology and start the process of thinking about the next stages of application. It will also enable teachers to use the technology with students, who will start their working lives with this "tacit knowledge".
IMM also has a role in the generation of test questions and the monitoring of student performance which can relieve teachers of much routine drudgery. They can provide students with immediate, quality feedback, a key factor in improving performance.
How do these considerations apply to higher education in Singapore?
The compact size and stable centralised government of Singapore, coupled with its highly competitive, technology aware population, suggests that here. if anywhere, the higher educational IMM developer is likely to find the resources and environment to support the development of interactive multimedia in such a way that individual institutions of higher education and Singapore as a whole, will continue to set the pace for this technology.
This paper uses some material published earlier in the Singapore Journal of Education, 13(2). The authors thank the editor of the SJE for allowing them to republish it here.
Alexander, Shirley, Whittingham, Tony & Peppard, Herb. (1993). The use of interactive videodisc to teach interviewing skills. ASCILITE Newsletter, 7(1) March, 18-23.
Bosco, J. & Wagner, J. (1988). A comparison of the effectiveness of interactive laser disc and classroom video tape for safety instruction of General Motors workers. Educational Technology, 28(6), 15-22.
Brandt, K. (1986). Interactive video: When to consider its use. San Jose State University. ERIC ED272174.
Ertel, Paul Y. & Aldridge, M. Gene (1977). Medical peer review: Theory and practice. St Louis. Mosby Publications.
Fletcher, J. (1990). Effectiveness and cost of interactive videodisc instruction in defence training and education. IDA Report R2372. Institute for Defence Analysis, Arlington, Va, July.
Gillespie, Lori (1992). Developing computer based learninglinstruction in the real world. The ASCILITE Newsletter, 7(1), March.
Hansen, E. J. (1989). Interactive video for reflection: Learning theory and a new use of the medium. Educational Technology, July 1989, 7-15. Quoted in S. Alexander, T. Whittingham & H. Peppard (1993), The use of interactive videodisc to teach interviewing skills. ASCILITE Newsletter, 7(1), March 18-23.
Hosie, P. (1992). Using interactive video in training contexts. Singapore Journal of Education, 13(2).
Ibsen, D. & Lewis, J. H. (1993). A model for implementing a cooperative multimedia information network. In G. Davies and B. Samways (Eds), Teleteaching: Proceedings of the IFIP TC3 third teleteaching conference, Teleteaching '93. Trondheim, Norway, August 20-25, 1993. Netherlands: Elsevier Science.
Kearsley, G. (1983). Computer based training: A guide to selection and implementation. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Ku, X. H. (1992). TT Centre - from vision to reality. Conference Proceedings of Information Technology for Training and Education 92. Brisbane: University of Queensland, 76-80.
Lemke, L. L. (1993). Hypermedia and higher education. Interpersonal Computing and Technology, 1 (2).
Muller, D. & Leonetti, R. (1992). A major technological advancement in training. Instructional Delivery Systems, July/August.
Netta, F. & Staub, U. (1988). The videodisc as a training aide. In U. Staub, U. & F. Lovis (Eds.), Remote education and informatics: Teleteaching. Netherlands: Elsevier Science.
Potter, David & Chickering, Arthur W. (1991). The 21st century university: The role of government. In Ronald R. Sims & Serbrenia J. Sims (Eds), Managing institutions of higher learning into the 21st Century: Issues and implications, p.13. Greenwood Press.
Rogers, E. M. (1962). Diffusion of innovation. New York. Free Press.
Szabo, Michael. (1992). CBIM Consultancy Final Report for Ngee Ann Polytechnic.
Turner, Sandra V. & Vito M. Dipinto (1992). Students as hypermedia authors: Themes emerging from a qualitative study. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 25(2), 187-199.
Wilson, L. (1987). What the research says about computer assisted instruction: Computer based training today. Alexandria: American Society for Training and Development.
Yardley, Russell. (1993). Technology in training: Delivering the world's best. Management, 3, April.
|Authors: Dr Justus H Lewis|
Head, Consultancy and Training Section
Ngee Ann Polytechnic, 535, Clementi Rd, Singapore 2159.
Fax/Tel. 65 469 8110 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mr Peter J Hosie
Please cite as: Lewis, J. H. and Hosie, P. J. (1994). Interactive video and interactive multimedia in higher education in Singapore: A case study. In C. McBeath and R. Atkinson (Eds), Proceedings of the Second International Interactive Multimedia Symposium, 284-289. Perth, Western Australia, 23-28 January. Promaco Conventions. http://www.aset.org.au/confs/iims/1994/km/lewis.html